ONUR CENGİZ KARADAĞ


SİVAS KONGRESİ-3

Nasıl Gelindi: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu.1699 dan itibaren gerilemeye başlamıştı.Osmanlı, Özellikle 2. Abdülhamit döneminde ağır ve karışık siyasi politikalar izlemiştir. Ahmet Cevdet Paşa’nın etkin olduğu 1842 yılından itibaren, halkın üzerindeki baskı ve zorunlu iskan politikaları son derece rahatsızlık uyandırmıştır.93 Osmanlı Rus harbinden sonra Kırım Yarımadası elimizden çıkmış ve Kafkaslar’da yaşayan yaklaşık üç milyon Türk nüfus sürülmüştür.Gelen bu muhacirler, Gümüşhane Bayburt Çankırı Ankara ve Kayseri’nin Sarız ve Tomarza bölgelerine yerleştirilerek burada yaşamakta olan, Avşar ve diğer Türkmen aşiretler verimsiz, çorak yerlere ikamete tabi tutulmuşlardır. 



1876 yılında Taht geçen 2. Abdülhamit döneminde yoksul halk üzerinde kurulan b askılar artınca, Kurtuluşu Meşrutiyette gören bazı Osmanlı gençleri bir araya gelerek Avrupalıların Jön Türkler dedikleri Yeni Osmanlılar’ Cemiyetini kurmuşlardır
Bunların başlıcaları;Mehmet Bey, Reşat Bey, Nuri Bey, Ayetullah Bey, Namık Kemal, Ziya Paşa ve Agah Efendi’dir.
1889’da İttihad-ı Osmani’den, Osmanlı İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyetine dönüşür. Genç Osmanlılar’ın Merkezi önce Selanik Sonra İstanbul’dur. 
İttihatçıların 1913’den sonraki Liderleri:” Üç Paşalar”,Enver Paşa, Talat Paşa, Cemal Paşa’dır.
1907 yılında Subaylar tarafından
2 gizli Cemiyet daha kuruldu. 
1-Osmanlı Hürriyet Cemiyeti
2-Vatan ve Hürriyet Cemiyeti
( Bunu Mustafa Kemal Atatürk kurdu)
 Abdülhamit(34.Osmanlı Padişahı ve 113. İslam Halifesidir).İkinci Abdülhamit (31.8.1876-27.4.1909),tarihleri arasında 33 Yıl padişahlık yapmıştır. 
OSMANLI’LARDA BİRİNCİ DÜNYA SAVAŞI ÖNCESİ EKONOMİK VE SİYASİ DURUM:
Osmanlı’nın Mali Yapısı 1911 Trablusgarp,1912 Balkan Yenilgilerinin ardından hepten çökmüş, İttihatçılar, iyice iktidara yerleşmişti.  Enver-Talat-Cemal adlı Paşalar Üçlüsü, devlette tek söz sahibiydi.
Cemal Paşa, Falih Rıfkı Atay ve Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu birlikte Büyük Ada’ya giderken, 
Cemal Paşa’ya ; Paşam , biz bu savaşa niye girdik?” diye sorarlar. 
Cemal Paşa;” Maaş ödeyebilmek için girdik! Hazine bomboştu. Maliye Nazırı Cavit Bey, Ne İngiltere, Ne de Fransa’dan on para alamayacağımızı söyledi. Duyun-u Umumiye’de, Londra’dan aldığı buyruklar doğrultusunda , her ay verdiği İki Milyon altın lirayı da kesti. Orduya ekmek alacak paramız yoktu. Durumumuzu bizim kadar iyi bilen Almanlar bize, ittifak karşılığı para önerdi. Bunun üzerine de ... olanlar oldu”
Osmanlı borçla 1775 de tanışmıştı.Osmanlı Avrupa’dan yıllık yüzde 11-12 den para alıyordu. 1879 yılında İngiliz Dışişleri bakanı Lord Derby; Bu borç &faiz sarmalı sonucu Osmanlı’nın kendi toprakları üzerinde, Egemenliği kalmamıştır. Diyordu.
Osmanlı 1914 de tarafsızdı. Kaiser Wilhelm; Osmanlı’nın savaşa girmesi koşuluyla;
 Yıllık %6 faizle, 5 milyon altın lira verecekti.Kredi koşullarına göre anlaşma imzalandığında,250 bin, Rusya ve İngiltere’ye savaş ilan edildikten 10 gün sonra 750 bin,Savaş sürdükçe her ay 400 bin altın lira verecekti. Bu hibe değildi. Kredi olarak verildi ve imzalar atıldı. 
Savaşa girerken Osmanlı’nın  borçları 163 milyon altın liraydı.Savaş bittiğinde 304 milyon liraydı. 1928 Anlaşmasıyla Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, Osmanlı genel borçlarının 1912 yılı öncesinden kalma bölümünün yüzde 62’sini, 1912 yılından sonraki bölümünün se yüzde 76’sını ödemeyi kabul etti.Borç 1954 yılında bitti.



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